Clinical and metabolic response to vitamin D plus probiotic in schizophrenia patients

Background: This study determined the effects of a novel combination of vitamin D and probiotic on metabolic and clinical symptoms in chronic schizophrenia.
Methods: This trial was conducted among 60 patients with chronic schizophrenia to receive either 50,000 IU vitamin D3 every 2 weeks plus 8 × 10CFU/day probiotic (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 12 weeks.


Results: Vitamin D and probiotic co-supplementation was associated with a significant improvement in the general (− 3.1 ± 4.7 vs. + 0.3 ± 3.9, P = 0.004) and total PANSS scores (− 7.4 ± 8.7 vs. -1.9 ± 7.5, P = 0.01). Vitamin D and probiotic co-supplementation also significantly increased total antioxidant capacity (+ 51.1 ± 129.7 vs.-20.7 ± 53.3 mmol/L, P = 0.007), and significantly decreased malondialdehyde (− 0.3 ± 0.9 vs. + 0.2 ± 0.4 μmol/L, P= 0.01) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (− 2.3 ± 3.0 vs. -0.3 ± 0.8 mg/L, P = 0.001) compared with the placebo. Moreover, taking vitamin D plus probiotic significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose (− 7.0 ± 9.9 vs. -0.2 ± 9.9 mg/dL, P = 0.01), insulin concentrations (− 2.7 ± 2.3 vs. + 0.4 ± 2.0 μIU/mL, P < 0.001), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (− 0.8 ± 0.7 vs. + 0.1 ± 0.7, P < 0.001), triglycerides (− 7.8 ± 25.2vs. + 10.1 ± 30.8 mg/dL, P = 0.01) and total cholesterol levels (− 4.9 ± 15.0 vs. + 5.9 ± 19.5 mg/dL, P = 0.04) and total−/HDL-cholesterol ratio (− 0.1 ± 0.6 vs. + 0.3 ± 0.8, P = 0.04).
Conclusion: Probiotic and vitamin D for 12 weeks to chronic schizophrenia had beneficial effects on the general and total PANSS score, and metabolic profiles.

Keywords: Vitamin D, Probiotic supplementation, Metabolic status, Schizophrenia